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分类: Mysql/postgreSQL

2014-03-21 15:14:52

安装
rmp -ivh MySQL-server-4.1.22-0.glibc23.i386.rpm --nodeps
rmp -ivh MySQL-client-4.1.22-0.glibc23.i386.rpm --nodeps
查看是否安装成功
netstat -atln 命令看到3306端口开放说明安装成功
登录
mysql [-u username] [-h host] [-p[password]] [dbname]
初始无密码,这个mysql可执行文件在/usr/bin/mysql
目录
1、数据库目录
    /var/lib/mysql/
2、配置文件
/usr/share/mysql(mysql.server命令及配置文件)
3、相关命令
/usr/bin(mysqladmin mysqldump等命令)
4、启动脚本
/etc/rc.d/init.d/(启动脚本文件mysql的目录)
修改登录密码
MySQL默认没有密码
usr/bin/mysqladmin -u root password 'new-password'
格式:mysqladmin -u用户名 -p旧密码 password 新密码
启动与停止
MySQL安装完成后启动文件mysql在/etc/init.d目录下,在需要启动时运行下面命令即可
启动:
/etc/init.d/mysql start
停止:
/usr/bin/mysqladmin -u root -p shutdown

重新启动:

sudo /etc/init.d/mysql restart 

自动启动:
察看mysql是否在自动启动列表中 /sbin/chkconfig --list
把MySQL添加到你系统的启动服务组里面去 /sbin/chkconfig --add mysql
把MySQL从启动服务组里面删除 /sbin/chkconfig --del mysql
配置
将/usr/share/mysql/my-medium.cnf复制到/etc/my.cnf,以后修改my.cnf文件来修改mysql的全局设置
将my.cnf文件中的innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit设成0来优化

  [mysqld]后添加添加lower_case_table_names设成1来不区分表名的大小写

设置字符集
MySQL的默认编码是Latin1,不支持中文,要支持需要把数据库的默认编码修改为gbk或者utf8。
1、中止MySQL服务(bin/mysqladmin -u root shutdown)
   2、在/etc/下找到my.cnf,如果没有就把MySQL的安装目录下的support-files目录下的my-medium.cnf复制到/etc/下并改名为my.cnf即可 
   3、打开my.cnf以后,在[client]和[mysqld]下面均加上default-character-set=utf8,保存并关闭
   4、启动MySQL服务(bin/mysqld_safe &)
查询字符集:show variables like '%set%';
增加MySQL用户
格式:grant select on 数据库.* to 用户名@登录主机 identified by "密码"
grant select,insert,update,delete on *.* to user_1@'%' Identified by '123';
grant all on *.* to user_1@'localhost' Identified by '123';
远程访问
  其一:
  GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO xoops_root@'%' IDENTIFIED BY '654321';
  允许xoops_root用户可以从任意机器上登入MySQL。
  其二:
  编辑 /etc/mysql/my.cnf
  >skip-networking => # skip-networking
  这样就可以允许其他机器访问MySQL了。

   grant all on *.* to 'root'@'ip' identified by 'password'; 

备份与恢复
备份
进入到库目录,cd /val/lib/mysql
mysqldump -u root -p --opt aaa > back_aaa
恢复
mysql -u root -p ccc < back_aaa




一、MySQL 连接本地数据库,用户名为“root”,密码“123”(注意:“-p”和“123” 之间不能有空格)

C:\>mysql -h localhost -u root -p123

二、MySQL 连接远程数据库(192.168.0.201),端口“3306”,用户名为“root”,密码“123”

C:\>mysql -h 172.16.16.45 -P 3306 -u root -p123

三、MySQL 连接本地数据库,用户名为“root”,隐藏密码

C:\>mysql -h localhost -u root -p

Enter password:

四、MySQL 连接本地数据库,用户名为“root”,指定所连接的数据库为“test”

C:\>mysql -h localhost -u root -p123 -D test

mysql>select database();

+------------+

| database() |

+------------+

| test       |

+------------+

下面是 MySQL 客户端命令的详细参数:

mysql  Ver 14.12 Distrib 5.0.41, for Win32 (ia32)

Copyright (C) 2002 MySQL AB

This software comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. This is free software,

and you are welcome to modify and redistribute it under the GPL license



Usage: mysql [OPTIONS] [database]

-?, --help          Display this help and exit.

-I, --help          Synonym for -?

--auto-rehash       Enable automatic rehashing. One doesn't need to use

'rehash' to get table and field completion, but startup

and reconnecting may take a longer time. Disable with

--disable-auto-rehash.

-A, --no-auto-rehash 

No automatic rehashing. One has to use 'rehash' to get

table and field completion. This gives a quicker start of

mysql and disables rehashing on reconnect. WARNING:

options deprecated; use --disable-auto-rehash instead.

-B, --batch         Don't use history file. Disable interactive behavior.

(Enables --silent)

--character-sets-dir=name 

Directory where character sets are.

--default-character-set=name 

Set the default character set.

-C, --compress      Use compression in server/client protocol.

-#, --debug[=#]     This is a non-debug version. Catch this and exit

-D, --database=name Database to use.

--delimiter=name    Delimiter to be used.

-e, --execute=name  Execute command and quit. (Disables --force and history

file)

-E, --vertical      Print the output of a query (rows) vertically.

-f, --force         Continue even if we get an sql error.

-G, --named-commands 

Enable named commands. Named commands mean this program's

internal commands; see mysql> help . When enabled, the

named commands can be used from any line of the query,

otherwise only from the first line, before an enter.

Disable with --disable-named-commands. This option is

disabled by default.

-g, --no-named-commands 

Named commands are disabled. Use \* form only, or use

named commands only in the beginning of a line ending

with a semicolon (;) Since version 10.9 the client now

starts with this option ENABLED by default! Disable with

'-G'. Long format commands still work from the first

line. WARNING: option deprecated; use

--disable-named-commands instead.

-i, --ignore-spaces Ignore space after function names.

--local-infile      Enable/disable LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE.

-b, --no-beep       Turn off beep on error.

-h, --host=name     Connect to host.

-H, --html          Produce HTML output.

-X, --xml           Produce XML output

--line-numbers      Write line numbers for errors.

-L, --skip-line-numbers 

Don't write line number for errors. WARNING: -L is

deprecated, use long version of this option instead.

-n, --unbuffered    Flush buffer after each query.

--column-names      Write column names in results.

-N, --skip-column-names 

Don't write column names in results. WARNING: -N is

deprecated, use long version of this options instead.

-O, --set-variable=name 

Change the value of a variable. Please note that this

option is deprecated; you can set variables directly with

--variable-name=value.

--sigint-ignore     Ignore SIGINT (CTRL-C)

-o, --one-database  Only update the default database. This is useful for

skipping updates to other database in the update log.

-p, --password[=name] 

Password to use when connecting to server. If password is

not given it's asked from the tty.

-W, --pipe          Use named pipes to connect to server.

-P, --port=#        Port number to use for connection.

--prompt=name       Set the mysql prompt to this value.

--protocol=name     The protocol of connection (tcp,socket,pipe,memory).

-q, --quick         Don't cache result, print it row by row. This may slow

down the server if the output is suspended. Doesn't use

history file.

-r, --raw           Write fields without conversion. Used with --batch.

--reconnect         Reconnect if the connection is lost. Disable with

--disable-reconnect. This option is enabled by default.

-s, --silent        Be more silent. Print results with a tab as separator,

each row on new line.

--shared-memory-base-name=name 

Base name of shared memory.

-S, --socket=name   Socket file to use for connection.

--ssl               Enable SSL for connection (automatically enabled with

other flags). Disable with --skip-ssl.

--ssl-ca=name       CA file in PEM format (check OpenSSL docs, implies

--ssl).

--ssl-capath=name   CA directory (check OpenSSL docs, implies --ssl).

--ssl-cert=name     X509 cert in PEM format (implies --ssl).

--ssl-cipher=name   SSL cipher to use (implies --ssl).

--ssl-key=name      X509 key in PEM format (implies --ssl).

--ssl-verify-server-cert 

Verify server's "Common Name" in its cert against

hostname used when connecting. This option is disabled by

default.

-t, --table         Output in table format.

-T, --debug-info    Print some debug info at exit.

--tee=name          Append everything into outfile. See interactive help (\h)

also. Does not work in batch mode. Disable with

--disable-tee. This option is disabled by default.

--no-tee            Disable outfile. See interactive help (\h) also. WARNING:

option deprecated; use --disable-tee instead

-u, --user=name     User for login if not current user.

-U, --safe-updates  Only allow UPDATE and DELETE that uses keys.

-U, --i-am-a-dummy  Synonym for option --safe-updates, -U.

-v, --verbose       Write more. (-v -v -v gives the table output format).

-V, --version       Output version information and exit.

-w, --wait          Wait and retry if connection is down.

--connect_timeout=# Number of seconds before connection timeout.

--max_allowed_packet=# 

Max packet length to send to, or receive from server

--net_buffer_length=# 

Buffer for TCP/IP and socket communication

--select_limit=#    Automatic limit for SELECT when using --safe-updates

--max_join_size=#   Automatic limit for rows in a join when using

--safe-updates

--secure-auth       Refuse client connecting to server if it uses old

(pre-4.1.1) protocol

--show-warnings     Show warnings after every statement.



Default options are read from the following files in the given order:

C:\my.ini C:\my.cnf C:\WINDOWS\my.ini C:\WINDOWS\my.cnf D:\MySQL\my.ini D:\MySQL\my.cnf 

The following groups are read: mysql client

The following options may be given as the first argument:

--print-defaults Print the program argument list and exit

--no-defaults  Do not read default options from any options file

--defaults-file=# Only read default options from the given file #

--defaults-extra-file=# Read this file after the global files are read



Variables (--variable-name=value)

and boolean options {FALSE|TRUE}  Value (after reading options)

--------------------------------- -----------------------------

auto-rehash                       TRUE

character-sets-dir                (No default value)

default-character-set             utf8

compress                          FALSE

database                          (No default value)

delimiter                         ;

vertical                          FALSE

force                             FALSE

named-commands                    FALSE

local-infile                      FALSE

no-beep                           FALSE

host                              (No default value)

html                              FALSE

xml                               FALSE

line-numbers                      TRUE

unbuffered                        FALSE

column-names                      TRUE

sigint-ignore                     FALSE

port                              3306

prompt                            mysql> 

quick                             FALSE

raw                               FALSE

reconnect                         TRUE

shared-memory-base-name           (No default value)

socket                            (No default value)

ssl                               FALSE

ssl-ca                            (No default value)

ssl-capath                        (No default value)

ssl-cert                          (No default value)

ssl-cipher                        (No default value)

ssl-key                           (No default value)

ssl-verify-server-cert            FALSE

table                             FALSE

debug-info                        FALSE

user                              (No default value)

safe-updates                      FALSE

i-am-a-dummy                      FALSE

connect_timeout                   0

max_allowed_packet                16777216

net_buffer_length                 16384

select_limit                      1000

max_join_size                     1000000

secure-auth                       FALSE

show-warnings                     FALSE
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